CHOE Yongchul*1. IntroductionManchu studies is a discipline that deals with the language, history, andculture of the Manchu people. With the collapse of the Qing Empirefollowing the 1911 Revolution, the Manchus’ role in governing Chinavanished, their language gradually disappeared, and they eventually becomelargely assimilated into Han Chinese society. Yet this point of extreme declineof Manchu power and identity heralded the formation of the discipline ofManchu studies in China. Manchu studies had already developed outside ofChina. Thanks to the pioneering efforts of Jesuit missionaries, the origins ofManchu studies in Europe can be traced back to the seventeenth century. Inthe nineteenth century, the center of Manchu studies in Europe moved to St.Petersburg in Russia. Already during the Ming-Qing transition period, Japanhad started to show interest in Manchu history and culture. Later, during theearly twentieth century, as Japan developed its political infl uence inManchuria, the Japanese imperialist government strongly supported Manchustudies and eagerly collected Manchu-related materials, with the result thatJapan has become a major center of the discipline. Recently, North Americanscholars have become interested in Manchu studies, through contact with theearlier research of European and Japanese scholars, and have in turn exertedinfl uence elsewhere under the rubric of the “new Qing history.” Taiwan storesimportant materials, such as Drafts of the Old Manchu Archives （Jiu Manzhoudang 舊滿洲檔）, and has been home to a small number of scholars who cantranslate and research Manchu materials. However, Manchu studies in Taiwanhas increasingly declined along with knowledge of the Manchu languageitself. Manchu studies in Mainland China has revived, owing to the post-Maoopening and the policy of “letting a hundred fl owers bloom.” Indeed, duringthe three decades of reform and opening up, Mainland Manchu studies has* Choe Yongchul is a professor in the Department of Chinese Language andLiterature of Korea University.90 Journal of Cultural Interaction in East Asia Vol.3 2012produced a signifi cant quantity of research, including over one hundredpublished monographs.1 The Number One Historical Archives in Beijingstores a vast amount of Manchu materials. These are being organized andcataloged by Manchu specialists, who are frequently native speakers of Sibe,a language derived from and largely similar to Qing-era Manchu. TheChinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Minzu University in Beijing, aswell as the provincial governments of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang, haveall established research institutes on the language, history, culture, documents,and customs of the Manchu people. Mainland China, with its vast number ofprimary materials and recent record of signifi cant academic achievements, hasestablished itself as the most important center of Manchu studies in theworld.Manchu studies in Korea has not yet approached a very high standard.2The number of Manchu specialists is modest, and the discipline has yet tobecome popular. Yet a small number of scholars have overcome poor conditionsto produce remarkable work, and thus have kept the discipline alive. Inlanguage, history, and geography, Korea has strong connections with theManchus, or Jurchens, so Korea has a good historical background forManchu studies. The Korean language is one of the languages most similarwith Manchu among the languages of Northeast Asia. The grammatical structureof the two languages is similar, and there are a number of similar words.Since the mid-Chosŏn period, a good number of textbooks on the Manchulanguage have been published. These materials now exert a positive infl uenceon Manchu studies in Korea. To be sure, until recently few Korean scholarshave chosen to explore Manchu studies, with the exception of a few linguistswho have explored Chosŏn dynasty language textbooks primarily as a tool forresearch into Korean linguistics or to compare Manchu and Korean. Morerecently, however, a few Qing historians have started using Manchu materialsin the central and provincial archives of China. As historical sources, suchManchu materials are most useful for research into Sino-Korean relations andissues related to the Qing-Chosŏn border. Hence, Manchu studies in Korea isfocused on two fi elds: comparative linguistics and the history of Sino-Koreanrelations. Recently, Korean scholars have realized that they need to developManchu studies more broadly to explore issues involving language, history,culture, custom, literature, and philology. They thus approach Manchu studies1 Yan Chongnian, et al., Ershi shiji shijie Manxue zhuzuo tiyao （A Synopsis ofManchu Studies throughout the World in the Twentieth Century） （Beijing:Minzu Chubanshe, 2003）.2 My discussion is limited to the scholarship of Republic of Korea. It does notinclude achievements of North Korean scholars.Manchu Studies in Korea 91with an interdisciplinary perspective. They believe that their efforts onManchu studies can eventually help the development of Korean studies, aswell as the broader discipline of Asian studies.2. Manchu Textbooks of the Chosŏn Period: The Four Books of QingStudiesThe Jurchen people of the Jin dynasty （1115-1234） had their own writingsystem. This writing system gradually fell out of use during the Mingdynasty （1368-1644）. However, in 1599, as the Jurchens began to regainpolitical strength, Nurhachi, the leader of the Jianzhou Jurchens, had theMongol script adapted to form a new Manchu writing system. Nurhachi’sscript was modifi ed during the 1620s and 1630s with the addition of dots andcircles to reduce ambiguities in the script. This new writing system becamethe medium for countless documents produced after the Manchu Qingconquered China in 1644. During the Ming-Qing transition, Jurchen andChosŏn relations were transformed by the restructuring of Northeast Asia. TheTranslators Institute （Sayŏgwŏn 司譯院） of the early Chosŏn court taught fourlanguages: Mongolian, Japanese, Jurchen, and Chinese. They were called the“four studies,” and the offi ce was supervised by the Board of Rites. In 1667,after the Manchu conquest of China, Jurchen studies became renamed Qingstudies. The Translators Institute published textbooks and dictionaries, fi rst inJurchen, then in Manchu, from fi fteenth century until the late eighteenthcentury. They were usually used by translators and students who took thequalifi cation examinations to become translators.According to the Gazette of the Tongmungwan 通文館志,3 during the earlyChosŏn there were fourteen different textbooks used in Jurchen studies,including the Thousand Character Classic （Cheonjamun 千字文）, Three-Year-Old Child （Samsea 三歲兒）, Discussion with a Little Child （Soaron 小兒論）, Eight-Year-Old Child （P’alsea八歲兒）, and Geohwa （去化）.4Unfortunately, none of these Jurchen texts are currently extant. In 1639 aninstructor of Jurchen studies, Sin Gye-am （申繼黯）, reworked fi ve of thesebooks （Thousand Character Classic, Three-Year-Old Child, Eight-Year-Old3 T’ongmungwan 通文館（ China Relations Institute） was established in 1276 byKing Ch’ongryŏl （r. 1274-1298） of the Koryo dynasty. Later, it was renamedSayŏgwŏn and it covered other foreign languages as well as Chinese. In hisT’ongmungwan chi completed in 1720, Kim Chinam 金指南 still used theformer name T’ongmungwan but in fact, it mainly deals with the history ofSayŏgwŏn.4 Tongmungwan ji, vol. 2, 3b, and vol. 7, 20b. Some of the books are listed byslightly different titles in the law codes, such as the Thousand CharacterClassic, which is listed as Chŏnja（ 千字） instead of as Chŏnjamun.92 Journal of Cultural Interaction in East Asia Vol.3 2012Child, Geohwa, and Discussion with a Little Child） from Jurchen intoManchu. To be sure, Jurchen studies before the seventeenth century and Qingstudies after the seventeenth century must have been signifi cantly different,but Sin Gye-am was able to understand the new Manchu language. Of thefi ve books, only two （Eight-Year-Old Child and Discussion with a LittleChild） have survived to the present. In addition to these fi ve, there were twoother Manchu textbooks: Translation of the Manchu Romance of the ThreeKingdoms （Samyeok chonghae 三譯總解） and Conversations in Manchu（Cheong-eo nogeoldae 淸語老乞大 or Sinseok nogeoldae 新釋老乞大）. After1683 these four books （Eight-Year-Old Child, Discussion with a Little Child,Translation of the Manchu Romance of the Three Kingdoms, andConversations in Manchu） became the main textbooks of Qing studies andwere collectively referred to as the “Four Books of Qing Studies”（Cheonghak saseo 淸學四書）.Conversations in Manchu was adapted from the original Chinese conversationtextbook. The translation was produced on the basis of the experiencesof Korean repatriates from China who had been captured during and after theManchu invasion of Korea in 1636-1637. This edition, which was printed in1703, has since disappeared. In 1765 Kim Chinha （金振夏） revisedConversations in Manchu and published it in P’yŏngyang in a woodblockedition.5 This edition is quite widespread and is now found in various countries,including France, the United Kingdom, and Japan. Chŏng Kwang hasedited it and made it readily available as a modern publication ChŏngKwang, titled A New Explanation of Conversations in Manchu （Chŏngŏnogŏldae sinsŏk 淸語老乞大新釋）.6 The Translation of the Manchu Romanceof the Three Kingdoms was another important Manchu textbook. It was basedlargely on a 1650s Manchu translation by Kicungge, a Manchu grand secretary,of a Jiajing-period （1796-1820） popular edition of the Romance of theThree Kingdoms （commonly called Sanguozhi tongsu yanyi 三國志通俗演義）.Kicungge’s translation, frequently referred to as the Romance of the ThreeKingdoms in Manchu, was adapted for use as a language textbook by order ofMin Chŏngjung （閔鼎重）, supervisor of the Translators Institute during thereign of King Sukjong （r. 1675-1720）. The resulting text, Translation of theManchu Romance of the Three Kingdoms, circulated only in manuscript form5 Tongmungwan ji, vol. 8; Sinsok Chŏngŏ nogŏldae 新釋淸語老乞大 is edited onthe basis of this 1765 edition of Chŏngŏ nogŏldae published in Kiyŏng 箕營（modern P’yŏngyang 平壤）.6 Chŏng Kwang, Kut’aek taehak tosŏgwan sojang Chŏngŏ nogŏldae （NewTranslation of Chŏngŏ nogŏldae stored in Komazawa University 駒澤大學）（Seoul: Taehaksa, 1998）. This book includes not only reprint of the originalbut also an introduction and a Korean glossary to the book.Manchu Studies in Korea 93until 1703, when six people, including Pak Ch’angyu （朴昌裕）, raised fundsfor its printing. In 1774 Kim Chinha published a revised version of the bookin a woodblock edition. The introduction of this new edition includes detailedinformation on the origins and history of this publication. Eight-Year-OldChild and Discussion with a Little Child were originally Jurchen-studies textbooksand were redone as textbooks for Manchu language study by SinKyeam after the Manchu invasion of 1636-1637. However, it was not printeduntil 1703, when it was published in a woodblock edition by Kim Chinha.Later it was reprinted in 1777. A copy of this 1777 edition is now housed inthe library of Seoul National University. The fi rst volume of A NewTranslation of Discussion with a Little Child （Sinyeok Soaron 新譯小兒論）includes an introduction by Yi Cham （李潜） with detailed information on theorigins of this book. These two Manchu textbooks have not attracted enoughattention from scholars. Eight-Year-Old Child is about a child prodigy whoresponds with witty answers to a series of questions by an emperor and eventuallyreceives an offi cial title. In this text, each Manchu word is transcribedin the Hangŭl script. It is thus an ideal tool for studying not only Manchu butalso Korean of the Chosŏn period. Discussion with a Little Child has a structuresimilar to Eight-Year-Old Child and is also about a child prodigy, this oneonly three years old but able to give witty answers to various questions. In1956 the Institute of Eastern Studies （Tongbanghak） of Yonsei University inSeoul （named Yonhee University then） reprinted the Translation of theManchu Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Vocabulary （Dongmun yuhae 同文類解）, Eight-Year-Old Child, and Discussion with a Little Child. This reprintis still accessible today.In addition, a series of Manchu dictionaries and bilingual works werepublished, including the Thousand Character Classic in Manchu and Chinese（Man-Han Chŏnjamun 滿漢千字文）, Vocabulary, and Chinese-ManchuDictionary （Han-Chŏng mungam 漢淸文鑑）. In the Thousand CharacterClassic in Manchu and Chinese, Manchu words are translated into Korean,and Chinese characters are followed by the Korean pronunciation in theHangŭl script. Vocabulary, a dictionary edited by Hyŏn Munhang （玄文恒）and produced by the Publication Offi ce （Kyosŏgwan 校書館） in 1748, wasbased on A Manchu Vocabulary （Chŏnghak mulmyŏng 淸學物名） and alsorefers to the Manchu Dictionary （Chŏngmungam 淸文鑑）, the Complete Bookof the Great Qing （Daechŏng jŏnsŏ 大淸全書）, and An Extended Vocabulary（Dongmun kwanghwi 同文廣彙）. The postscript to A Manchu Vocabulary,written by An Myŏngsŏl （安命說）, describes the publication history of thiswork in considerable detail. The book housed in the Gyujanggak Library ofSeoul National University is the edition revised and reprinted by Kim Jinha.The Chinese-Manchu Dictionary, based on the Imperially Commissioned94 Journal of Cultural Interaction in East Asia Vol.3 2012Enlarged Manchu Dictionary （Yuzhi zengding Qingwenjian 御製增訂清文鑑）of the Qianlong period, consists of 15 volumes and 15 sections. The publicationyear is unknown but is presumed to be circa 1779. In this work, bothManchu and Chinese characters are all transcribed in Hangŭl and followed bydetailed defi nitions in Korean. In this multilingual dictionary, the threelanguages can be compared with one another. In comparison with otherManchu dictionaries, this work is the richest in terms of the vast number ofwords it contains. This work too was edited and printed under Kim Chinha’ssupervision, but it did not circulate widely. Copies of this book are nowfound in the library of the University of East Asian Languages in Paris andthe library of Tokyo University. This book was reprinted by YonseiUniversity under the title Korean, Chinese, and Manchu Dictionary （Han-Han-Chŏng mungam 韓漢淸文鑑）.Manchu textbooks and dictionaries published in Korea during the Chosŏnperiod have now become important materials for study of the Manchu andKorean languages of that period.7 With the help of these works, it is possibleto research in depth the interactions among various East Asian languages andpeoples.83. Manchu Materials on Qing-Korean Relations: Archives in Beijingand the ProvincesManchu materials can be divided into four categories: archives, translations,genealogies, and stone inscriptions. Archives include documents,pictures, and maps produced during the daily work of various offi cial organizations.Large quantities of Manchu archival materials have remained. Theydeal with various issues, including politics, the economy, military affairs,ethnicity, and religion, and so they are highly valuable sources. They are nowstored in national, provincial, and municipal archives. The Number One7 The library of Korea University now stores the woodblocks of language textbooksused in the Translators Institute during the Chosŏn period, includingSangwŏnjaeŏ （象院題語）, Pakt’ongsa sinyŏk （朴通事新譯）, Pakt’ongsa sinyŏkŏnhae （朴通事新譯諺解）, Mongŏ nogeoldae （蒙語老乞大）, Ch’ŏphae sinŏ （捷解新語）, Chŏngŏ nogŏldae （淸語老乞大）, Samyŏk ch’onghae （三譯總解）,Tongmun yuhae （同文類解）, Chunggan ch’ophae sinŏ （重刊捷解新語）,Chŏphae sinŏ munyŏk（ 捷解新語文釋）, and Waeŏ yuhae（ 類解）. The number ofwoodblocks amounts to 590. See Chŏngg Kwang and Yun Seyŏng,Sayŏkgwŏn yŏkhaksŏ ch’aekpan yŏngu （A Study of Editions of Books forTranslation at Sayŏkwŏn）（ Seoul: Korea University Press, 1998）.8 So far, several Korean scholars—including Sŏng Paegin, Chŏng Kwang, andCh’oe Tonggwŏn—have researched the Manchu-language textbooks publishedduring the Chosŏn period. I mainly refer to Chŏng Kwang’s introduction to ANew Explanation of Conversations in Manchu.Manchu Studies in Korea 95Historical Archives in Beijing stores the largest number of Manchu archivalmaterials in the world. The National Palace Museum and the Institute ofHistory and Philology in Taiwan also include a signifi cant number of Manchuarchival sources. The National Palace Museum stores the Drafts of the OldManchu Archives （Jiu Manzhou dang 舊滿洲檔）, the original source for theOld Manchu Archives （Manwen laodang 滿文老檔）. The Tōyō Bunko in Japanhouses the Archives of the Bordered Red Banner （Xianghongqidang 鑲紅旗檔）. The archives of the offi ces of Heilongjiang Governor General, NinggutaLieutenant General, and Hunchun Lieutenant General were ransacked by theRussian army during the Boxer Rebellion of 1910. Later, in 1956, they wererepatriated to China and are now housed in the Number One HistoricalArchives.Signifi cant progress has been made in organizing and publishing theManchu archives since China’s reforms beginning in the late 1970s.According to Wu Yuanfeng, director of the Manchu Documents Section of theNumber One Historical Archives, the Number One Historical Archives hasalready published 15 Chinese translations of Manchu documents, 7 works thatinclude both Manchu documents and their Chinese counterparts, and 6 worksthat just reproduce original Manchu documents.9 Included in the last categoryare the Archives of the Lieutenant General’s Offi ce in Hunchun （HunchunFudutong Yamen Dang’an 琿春副都統衙門檔案）. Since Hunchun is located onChina’s northeastern border near both Korea and Russia, the archive is aunique and important historical source for the study of relations among thethree countries.Drafts of the Old Manchu Archives is an offi cial history of the early Qingperiod, covering 1607 to 1636. This book, which includes a large amount ofinformation not mentioned in Chinese materials, is a valuable source forstudying Manchu history and language.A few Korean scholars have already started to translate and research thisbook. Choi Donggwon has already fi nished translating “Huangzidang” （荒字檔）, the fi rst volume of this book, and is now working on the “Zezidang” （昃字檔）, the second volume. According to him, translating Drafts of the OldManchu Archives requires understanding the historical background, becoming9 Wu Yuanfeng, “Zhongguo Dalu bianyi chuban Qingdai Manwen dang’angaikuang zongshu” （A Summary of the General Circumstances of theMainland’s Editing, Translating, and Publishing of the Qing Period ManchuArchives）, presented at the international conference “Manjuhak ŭi hyonhwangkwa kwaje” （The Present and Future of Manchu Studies）, hosted by theResearch Institute of Korean Studies, Korea University, April 15, 2011. Wu isthe director of the Manchu Documents Section in the Number One HistoricalArchives.96 Journal of Cultural Interaction in East Asia Vol.3 2012familiar with the personal and geographic names mentioned in the book, andhaving a good knowledge of Mongolian and Chinese. He emphasizes that todevelop Manchu studies in Korea, it is important to produce specialists on theManchu language, collect materials related to Manchu studies, upgrade internationalexchanges, and establish a specialized research institute for Manchustudies.104. Manchu Versions of Novels and PlaysKorean scholars have yet to research the Manchu versions of traditionalChinese novels. The Four Books of Qing Studies of Chosŏn Korea includethe Translation of the Manchu Romance of the Three Kingdoms, based onKicungge’s Manchu-language translation of this romance. Research on thisKorean translation cannot be considered apart from the issue of translationand its relation to earlier editions of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms inboth Chinese and Manchu. Currently, however, Korean scholars of Chineseliterature have paid little attention to the Manchu versions of novels.Chinese novels played a signifi cant role in the lives of Manchus duringthe early Qing. Even during the Jin dynasty, the Jurchens greatly favorednarrative literature. The fi rst two rulers of the Manchu state, Nurhachi andHongtaiji, were both especially fond of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms.In 1639 Hongtaiji ordered the translation of Chinese novels, including theRomance of the Three Kingdoms, to use them as guides for administration.After the Qing conquest of China proper in 1644, the fi rst Manchu translationof the Romance of the Three Kingdoms was published in 1650. Later, WaterMargin （Shuihuzhuan 水滸傳）, Jin Ping Mei （金甁梅）, which is known asPlum in the Golden Base to general audience, and Romance of the WestChamber （Xixiangji 西廂記） were also translated into Manchu. It would beinteresting indeed to fi gure out the infl uence of these Manchu translations onChosŏn-era Korean vernacular translations of these same Chinese novels.Possible projects include a comparison of the translation methods and style ofthe bilingual Manchu-Chinese Romance of the West Chamber （Man-HanXixiangji 滿漢西廂記） with a similar bilingual Korean-vernacular and Chineseversion of the Romance of the West Chamber （currently available under thetitle Seon-Han ssangmun Seosanggi 鮮漢雙文西廂記）.The Romance of the Three Kingdoms in Manchu （which in Manchu issimply titled Ilan gurun i bithe） appeared during the Shunzhi period （1644-1661）, in a text divided into 24 juan. At the time, under order of Dorgon10 Ch’oe Tonggwŏn, “Hanguk ŭi Manjuhak yŏngu panghyang” （ResearchTendencies of Manchu Studies in Korea）, presented at the internationalconference “Manjuhak yŏngu ŭi hyŏnsang kwa kwajae” （see n. 7）.Manchu Studies in Korea 97（who was the prince regent from 1644-1650）, seven offi cials, including thegrand secretary Kicungge, organized a translation team. In 1650 Kicunggeinformed Dorgon, “The translation has now been completed, and the text hasbeen printed.” The Manchu translation was based on a popular Chineseedition from the Jiajing period （1522-1566） of the Ming dynasty. TheYongzheng period （1723-1735） saw the publication of another 24-juanManchu translation, The Man-Han Bilingual Version of the Romance of theThree Kingdoms （Man-Han hebi Sanguozhi 滿漢合璧三國志）.The Chosŏn Translation of the Manchu Romance of the Three Kingdoms（Samyeok chonghae 三譯總解）, one of the Manchu textbooks of ChosŏnKorea, was derived from ten chapters of the Romance of the Three Kingdomsin Manchu. Within this text, Manchu is transcribed in the Hangŭl scriptwritten parallel to the Manchu text. At appropriate locations, a pause is madein the Manchu text to make space for a Korean vernacular translation of thepreceding Manchu text. This parallel translation was fi rst published in 1703and then reprinted in 1774. Its Korean title, Samyŏk chonghae, is ambiguous,as “samyŏk” （three translations, or translation of Three） may merely meanthat it is a translation of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms （by which interpretationa literal translation of the title would be Complete Explication of theTranslation of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms）, or it may refer to thethree different linguistic components of the book: the original Manchu, theHangŭl transcription of the Manchu, and the Korean vernacular translation.According to Kishida Fumitaka, the Shunzhi edition of the Romance of theThree Kingdoms in Manchu originated from the Chinese version of the Mingperiod, and the Manchu text of the Man-Han Bilingual Version of theRomance of the Three Kingdoms was a revision of the Romance of the ThreeKingdoms in Manchu, with its Chinese text being based on the edition of LiDuowu （李卓吾）.11 When the Manchu and Chinese texts confl icted with eachother, the editor followed the Romance of the Three Kingdoms in Manchu andcorrected the corresponding Chinese text. The Korean text of the Translationof the Manchu Romance of the Three Kingdoms was translated from theManchu text, but sometimes referred to the Chinese version.The Manchu version of the Water Margin consists of four volumes. It iscurrently housed in the Minzu University library in China. The title, WaterMargin in Manchu （Manwen Shuihuzhuan 滿文水滸傳）, seems to have beenattached to the right side of the cover well after the original publication. Thefi rst volume lists the names of the characters in the book, divided, accordingto the narrative of the Water Margin, into the 36 incarnations of heavenly11 Kishida Fumitaka, “Samyŏkchonghae chŏbongo” （On the Original Editions ofSamyŏk ch’onghae）, Altai hakbo, no. 2 （1997）.98 Journal of Cultural Interaction in East Asia Vol.3 2012spirits （Tian’gangxing 天罡星）—including Songjiang, Lu Zhunyi, Wu Yong,Gongson Sheng, Lin Zhong, Qin Ming, and Yan Qing—and the 72 incarnationsof earthly spirits （Dishaxing 地煞星）—including Zhou Wu, Huang Xin,Bai Sheng, Shi Qian, and Duan Jingzhou. However, this Manchu editionmissed quite a number of names and used incorrect characters for many more.For example, among the 36 incarnations of heavenly spirits, Hu Yanzhuo （呼延灼） is rendered incorrectly as Hu Yansuo （呼延朔） and Huarong （花榮） isrendered with the wrong characters （花容）, while among the 72 incarnationsof earthly spirits, the names of twenty are wrongly listed, including Han Dao（韓滔）, who is listed as Han Chao （韓超）, and Wei Dingguo （魏定國）, whosename is rendered incorrectly as Wei Dingguo 衛定國. In addition, 20 namesare simply missed. These kinds of mistakes frequently happened in Koreantranslations of Chinese literature. In Korean versions, all the contents werewritten in Korean and only the titles of books were rendered in Chinese onthe cover after the book had been bound. Usually the translator and theperson who made the Chinese book title were different. Hence, the personwho made the title frequently did not know the original title of the book orthe names of characters who appeared in the book.12 In the case above of theWater Margin, it can be said that the person who wrote the Chinese names forthe characters did not know the novel well.The Manchu version of the Jin Ping Mei has attracted the attention of manyscholars. According to Shaolian （昭褳） in his Miscellaneous Notes （Xiaotingzalu 蕭亭雜錄）, “Hesu （和素）, director of the Board of Revenue, excels attranslation. He has translated the Romance of the West Chamber and Jin PingMei, among others. Whenever he translates a book, he gives every word itsappropriate meaning so that people love to read the book.” Jin Ping Mei inManchu fi rst appeared in 1708. The introduction in the fi rst volume is datedthe lunar Fifth Month of 1708. It comprises 40 juan and 100 chapters. It doesnot include pictures, and every page has nine columns, read from left to right,as is usual for Manchu books. Another Manchu version, found in the libraryof Tenli University in Japan, comprises 40 juan and 80 ce.13 Hesu, whosecourtesy name was Cunzhai （存齋）, was a member of the Manchu BorderedYellow Banner and worked as a secretary in the Grand Secretariat. According12 For example, the title of Pingbingjŏn（ 聘聘傳）, a Korean novel of the Chosŏnperiod, was written as “Pingpingzhuan” （聘聘傳） on the cover and mentionedas “Pingbingjŏn” （빙빙전） in the text. Scholars had not thought that it was atranslation. Later, however, it was found that the name, Bingbing actuallycame from Jia Pingping （賈娉娉）, a character of an episode of the novelJiandeng xinhua （剪燈新話）. That is, the cover title should have been writtenas 娉娉傳.13 Juan 卷 and ce 册 are equivalent to chapter and volume in English.Manchu Studies in Korea 99to A Collection of Eminent Qing Biographies （Guochao qixian leizhengchubian 國朝耆獻類徵初編）, Hesu edited the 18-juan Instrumental TreasuresContrasted （Jinbao hebi 琴寶合璧）, which was a Manchu translation of MusicBequeathed from Antiquity （Taigu yiyin 太古遺音） by Yang Lun （楊掄） of theMing period. Twelve years after the publication of Jin Ping Mei with annotationsby Zhang Zhubo （張竹坡）, Hesu translated the novel from Zhang’sversion, deleting Zhang’s annotations and translating the main text intoManchu.14 In the introduction of the Manchu version, Hesu states, “Fortuneand misfortune are decided by rewarding virtue and punishing vice. I amusemyself and demonstrate my talent with writing.” He continues, “With the helpof reason and inborn nature, the book explains the phenomenon of nature; itdifferentiates the steadfast from the wicked by showing love for righteousnessand expressing disgust for wickedness. Although it should be categorized asmiscellaneous writing, it still includes some valuable elements.” He summarizedthe book by saying, “The one hundred chapters represent one hundredadmonitions.” From this, it is clear that Hesu translated this novel toadmonish the people.The Romance of the West Chamber in Manchu and Chinese （Man-HanXixiangji）, comprising 4 juan and 16 chapters, was printed by woodblock in1710. This book is also called the Manchu-Han Bilingual Version of theRomance of the West Chamber （Man-Han hebi Xixiangji）. The fi rst volumeincludes a bilingual introduction written in Manchu and Chinese.15 Everyvolume includes a table of contents. Each line is divided in half, withManchu on the left and Chinese on the right. For example, the fi rst line of thefi rst volume, which may be rendered as “Preface to the Romance of the WestChamber, the Manchu-Chinese Romance of the West Chamber,” has “si siyanggi bithei sioi, manju nikan si siyang gi” in Manchu on the left and “西厢记序满汉西厢记” in Chinese on the right. The Romance of the West Chamber inManchu and Chinese is based on the Romance of the West Chamber withPunctuation and Annotations by Jin Shengtan （Jin Shengtan pingdianXixiangji 金聖嘆評點西廂記）, which was popular during the early Qingdynasty. However, the Manchu-Chinese version includes only the fi rst fourjuan （sixteen chapters） and excludes the fi fth juan （another four chapters）.This version is now housed in the Chon’gyŏng’gak library of Sungkyunkwan14 Wang Rumei, “Manwen yiben Jin Ping Mei xu he zuozhe Lu Nan shuo” （ThePreface of the Manchu Translation of Jin Ping Mei and the Theory That theAuthor Is Lu Nan）, in Wang Rumei jiedu “Jin Ping Mei” （Wang RumeiExplains Jin Ping Mei）（ Changchun: Shidai Wenyi Chubanshe）.15 The authors of the Manchu version and the introduction are anonymous.According to Shaolian, the author of Man-Han Xixiang ji is likely to be Hesu.100 Journal of Cultural Interaction in East Asia Vol.3 2012University in Korea and the Institute of Eastern Culture at the University ofTokyo in Japan, among other places.16Interestingly enough, Chosŏn the Romance of the West Chamber appealedto Koreans of the Chosŏn period. Kim Chŏnghŭi （金正喜）, a famous late-Chosŏn scholar, translated it. A bilingual version of the novel in Korean andChinese survives. A copy of this book, titled Romance of the West Chamberin Korean and Chinese （Sŏn-Han ssangmun Sŏsanggi 鮮漢雙文西廂記）, is nowfound in the rare-books library of Korea University. In this book, the originalChinese is written in red ink. An interesting future research topic would be tocompare this version with the Romance of the West Chamber in Manchu andChinese, mentioned above. In addition, there is a famous Korean translationof the Dream of the Red Chamber, titled the Complete Translation of theDream of the Red Chamber （Hongnumong chŏnyŏkpon 紅樓夢全譯本）. In thisbook, the original Chinese characters were written in red ink and were transcribedin Hangŭl on the side of each Chinese character. The Korean translationwas put at the bottom of each page. This layout of the translation issimilar to that of Chinese novels in Manchu translated by the ChosŏnTranslators Institute for use as Manchu textbooks. It is possible that the translatorof the Dream of the Red Chamber was familiar with not only Chinesebut also Manchu, as he referred to the Manchu version of the novel. A fascinatingresearch topic would be to compare the Korean and Manchu translationsof Chinese novels.5. ConclusionAlthough Manchu studies in Korea has a history several decades long andhas produced a number of excellent scholars, it still has attracted only limitedattention among scholars and lacks comprehensive research. The ResearchInstitute of Korean Studies at Korea University, however, has already establisheda long-term and ambitious plan to develop and lead Manchu studies inKorea. It has already made efforts to understand previous research in this fi eldwithin and outside of Korea. We have also invited Korean specialists on theManchu language to give Manchu language classes.17 In addition, to upgrade16 According to the introduction of Beijing Baoli Guoji Paimai Gongsi to Man-HanXixiangji, each volume has a table of contents and four pictures. The author,however, is unknown.17 In the Research Institute of Korean Studies, the elementary Manchu class usesKawachi Yoshihiro, Manshūgo bungo bunten （A Grammar of LiteraryManchu） and Zhuang Jifa, Yumen tingzheng （The Emperor Administers theAffairs of State）. At a more advanced level, the intermediate class readsManzhou shilu （Veritable Records of the Manchus）, GongzhongdangKangxichao zouzhe （vol. 8） （Palace Collection of Memorials of the KangxiManchu Studies in Korea 101research on the history of international relations among Korea, China, andRussia, researchers of the institute are reading and researching the Archives ofthe Lieutenant General’s Offi ce in Hunchun and writing research papersrelated to this archive.18 Its Manchu-Korean research team has alreadyfi nished translating and annotating Conversations in Manchu and Dzengšeo’sMy Service in the Army （Manchu: Beye-I cooha bade yabuha babe ejehebithe; Chinese: Suijun jixing 隨軍紀行）.19 Both works are very close to publication.The team is now annotating and translating the Vocabulary. They alsohave plans to translate Jin Ping Mei, the Imperially Commissioned ManchuDictionary （Yuzhi Qingwenjian 御製淸文鑑）, and the Chinese-ManchuDictionary.Last year Sŏng Paegin, emeritus professor of Seoul National University,donated valuable Manchu materials to the Research Institute of KoreanStudies, greatly strengthening the institute’s Manchu collection. The institutehas invited Chinese scholars from the Number One Historical Archives andthe Chinese Academy of Social Sciences to hold a discussion on Manchustudies.20 The institute has also dispatched scholars to Beijing for academicexchanges. In addition, it has invited Mark Elliott, a Manchu specialist, todeliver a series of lectures. This April the institute hosted an internationalconference, inviting eminent Manchu specialists as presenters and discussants.21 The conference produced constructive academic output and stimulatedManchu studies in Korea. Although Manchu studies in Korea is still afl edging discipline, this institute has indomitable academic ambitions andseeks to become a center of Manchu studies in Korea.Reign）, and Qingdai Zhungaer shiliao （Qing Period Dzungar HistoricalSources）, among other works.18 This archive was published in 238 volumes in 2006 by the Guangxi ShifanDaxue Chubanshe.19 Trans. note: I follow the translation suggested by Mark C. Elliot, The ManchuWay: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China（Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001）, p. 445, n. 52.20 Guest scholars included Ding Yizhuang from the Chinese Academy of SocialSciences and Zhang Li from the Number One Historical Archives.21 Presenters included Wu Yuanfeng （Number One Historical Archives inBeijing）, Zhao Zhiqiang （Chinese Academy of Social Sciences）, KusunokiYoshimichi （Tsukuba University in Japan）, Lin Shixuan （National PalaceMuseum in Taipei）, Marcus Bingenheimer （Dharma Drum Buddhist Collegein Taiwan）, Ko Tongho （Chŏnbuk University in Korea）, and Ch’oe Tonggwŏn（Sangji University in Korea）. Acting as discussants were Kim Sŏnmin, KimYubŏm, Pak Sangsu, and other specialists.