critical theory of communication
The task of this book is to present readings on specific works of selected Frankfurt School thinkers and to thereby open up the discussion on cultural Marxism to new frontiers.
1.The starting point: Karl Marx
• German Ideology , foundations of a materialist theory of culture and ideology. Men are indirectly producing their material life by producing their means of subsistence.
Subsistence: food, shelter and technology; also means of communication that humans use for organising their social relations through communication.
• 文化、意识形态的物质性，意识形态是由 specific ideological workers（如官僚、资产阶级体系下的记者和知识分子）生产
2.Georg Lukács: Teleological Positing
这一节比较了 Lukács和William的文化物质观，不同之处在于William忽略了分析经济和文化的关系，但是lu关注阶级社会中人们的行为，他发现teleological positing is not oriented on humanity as end-in-itself, but its means and ends are reversed: in class-based society, humans become means and instruments for the privileges of a dominant class. 阶级社会里存在（后来被霍克海默称为是）工具理性，（马尔库塞称为）技术理性。
• Lukács reposes Marx's questions: how are the economy and culture related? What is the connection of labour and ideology? Human production is a teleological positing with a purpose, orientation and goal. He stresses that mental work and ideology are not the same. He consider a subset of mental work as the labour of the ideologists that Marx speaks about the produce, reproduce and spread dominative ideas that justify class and domination.
• Raymond Williams’ Cultural Materialism. Cultural Materialism sees 'the complex unity of the elements' required for the existence of culture: ideas, institutions, formations, distribution, technology, audiences, forms of communication and interpretation.
• Williams and Lukács got the same answer for what the materiality of culture is, which is social production is the unifying human activity that creates all use-values.
• Ideology tries to instrumentalise human thoughts by spreading ideas that justify exploitation and domination.
3.Theodor W. Adorno: The Dialectics of Knowledge
• 他反对将知识看作反映，并被外界世界所决定，因为关于知识的理论不是线性发展和机械化的。All knowledge production is based on a dialectic of human subjects and an external objective environment (nature, society).
• 意识形态试图去减少知识的辩证性为了将社会转变的可能性隐藏起来。Ideology tries to present class-based society as identical with society itself. 虚假统一性 对文化工业的批判
4.Herbert Marcuse: The Meta-Dialectic and the Dialectical Logic of Essence
• 形塑未来的不是资本主义和阶级社会的矛盾，而是人类的实践，特别是那些在社会分崩离析时的实践。the humans make the dialetic, butthey do not do so just as they please, but under objective, structural dialectic circumstances set in the past.
• Fuchs gave us an example to demonstrated the point which mentioned above: dot-com crisis. The structural force of the objective dialectic the resulted in the crisis compelled actors in the internet economy to rethink and revise their economic stratehige. But the reaction was a new captial accumulation strategy, namely to foster social media business that are based on targeted adversing, which has created new economic contradicitons centred around the question of how profitable targeted advertising can actually be.
• Marcuse studies the role of cultural work in society, he adds a psychoanalytic dialectic to the analysis by exploring the relationship of play and labour.
• Playbour has becoma a new management stragety and ideology.
• A state of affairs can only be true if its existence corresponds to its essence.
• In the world of facebook, we are confronted with the social, whereas the commodity form is not immediately visible to the user. This inverse commodity fetishism hides the commodity form behind the social. Communication's essence appears as ideology that masks facebook's commodity form and the exploitation of users' digital labour. In the world of corporate social media, exploitation is real, but tends to become invisible and only indirectly experienceable.